What exactly does our hair consist of? Why does dandruff appear? And how long can our hair reach? In our encyclopedia, you will learn everything about hair and get acquainted with some definitions and concepts that everyone needs to know.
All about hair 1: structure and quantity of hair, growth, and color
- Each hair is 80% keratin (protein), 10%-15% water, the remaining 5%-10% are pigments, minerals, and lipids (fats). The surface forms the so-called cuticle or upper scaly layer. Inside the top layer is located cortical substance (cortex), which is about 80% percent of the hair. Chemical transformations (hair coloring, discoloration, chemistry) occur in this part.
- Hair color is determined by the amount of coloring matter (pigment) in the hair follicle. Pigments are formed from pigment cells (melanocytes), through the thinnest channels they penetrate into keratin or horn cells, forming color. In General, the less pigment contained in the hair, the lighter their color will be.
- The question “how to grow hair” is of interest to many women who are trying to grow hair. They will be upset to hear that it is extremely difficult to stimulate hair growth. Per day, the hair grows on average by 0.03-0.045 mm, and per month by 1-2 cm. the Maximum possible length ranges from 40 to 80 cm.
- The amount of hair depends on their color. In blondes it is about 150,000 hairs, in brunettes-about 110,000, in brown-haired-100,000, and red-80,000 hairs.
All about hair 2: strength and quality of hair
- A single hair can withstand an average of 100 grams of weight. Accordingly, the total lifting force as a whole will be at least 10 tons.
- The thickness of the hair laid genetically. By European standards, thin hair is considered to have a diameter of 0.04 to 0.06 mm. the Norm is a considered-a diameter of 0.06-0.08 mm, and thick-from 0.08 to 0.1 mm. Hair Asians in comparison with the hair of Europeans thicker: the average thickness of the hairs in Asia is from 0.08 to 0.12 mm.
All about hair 3: melanin, keratin and scaly layer
- Melanin is located inside the keratin fiber. Depending on the amount of coloring matter depends on the darker or lighter the color will be. With age, the formation of melanin is gradually reduced, which leads to the appearance of gray or silver hair. There are two different types of melanin: large black-brown pigments of eumelanin and relatively small red-yellow granules of pheomelanin. The combination of these types of melanin forms the entire range of color shades of hair.
- Speaking of hair, of course, also need to mention keratin. Keratin is a substance that makes up hair and nails. Keratin is a very elastic protein, the main component of our hair and nails.
- The scaly layer, called the cuticle, forms the outer layer of the hair. It consists of flat scales arranged on the principle of a fir cone and is an indicator of health. If the scales are tightly adjacent to each other, the internal structure is reliably protected from external influences. In addition, the light is well reflected from the smooth surface, which provides Shine to the hair. If, on the contrary, the top layer is damaged, slightly opened and rough due to the influence of various factors (stress, discoloration, perming, frequent use of thermo-devices), harmful substances can penetrate inside. As a result, the hair becomes dull, brittle and matted. Intensive care with special shampoos and conditioners will help to return smoothness.
All about hair 4: scalp and dandruff
- The scalp has the same structure as the rest of the skin. And has the same sensitivity, despite the fact that it is under the hair. The scalp is exposed to the external environment, such as frost or heat, which can lead to sunburn, dryness, itching or dandruff. Or it may become too oily under the influence of certain factors that stimulate the activity of the sebaceous glands. Therefore, you should always take good care not only of the hair but also of the scalp.
- Dandruff can occur on both dry and oily skin types if the smallest skin cells die too early and in too large quantities. The reasons can be different: stress, poor nutrition, hormonal failure, dry air in the room, frequent blow-drying or too aggressive shampoos. Come to the aid of special shampoos with content such as ciclopirox or zinc pyrithione.
All about hair 5: hair follicle and sebaceous gland secretion
- The hair follicle is the root of the hair, it is located under the skin of the head at an angle. This is the place of formation of the hair shaft. In the upper part of the follicles are sebaceous glands responsible for the production of sebum.
- The scalp, as well as the entire skin, contains sebaceous glands. They produce fats that protect the scalp and hair from drying out. Depending on genetic predisposition, stress or hormonal changes, sebum production is sometimes disrupted. The result is either too dry or too oily skin, which is often accompanied by itching, redness, and dandruff.
All about hair 6: life cycle and hair loss
- Hair is constantly in different phases of development. Most (about 80-90 %) are in the growth phase (anagen). During the anagen period, a new root is formed, and the hair begins to grow. This phase lasts from two to seven years. Then comes a short transitional phase (catagen) lasting from two to three weeks, during which the follicle gradually stops the formation of new cells. Due to this, the follicle narrows and the hair falls out. Approximately 1% is in this transition phase. In the subsequent resting phase (telogen), the hair follicle regenerates, begins the formation of new cells and the appearance of new hair. This phase lasts two to three months and covers 10 to 20 % of the hairs. These are, indeed, the least known, but very interesting facts about hair.
- We talked about the growth of hair on the head and the life cycle, but do not forget about hair loss. The norm is the loss of 30 to 100 hairs per day. The loss of a larger number may have different causes. In 95% of cases, hair loss is hereditary, both in men and women. Excessive formation of male hormones (androgens) leads to the poor blood supply to the hair follicles that hold the hairs on the head.
- A single hair remains on the head from six to eight years, then it falls out. With severe hair loss, the average life expectancy of hair is reduced to 3-4 years.
All about hair 7: split ends
- Strongly split ends hair-will help only shears.
- Split ends are called stratified ends of hair, which appear in large numbers on long hair. The causes may be mechanical damage as a result of brushing or friction on the shoulders. However, frequent staining, discoloration, perming or the use of thermal appliances (hairdryer, iron, Curling iron) can also damage the tips. If split ends just appeared, it will help, at least visually, serum for split ends with the finest silicone oils. In extreme cases, only a haircut will help.
All about hair 8: grey hair
- With proper care, natural gray hair can also look attractive.
- Gray hair isn’t really gray at all. It is a mixture of white and has not yet lost its pigmentation of the hair, which appears gray. The white color occurs when the pigment cells stop the production of melanin. The onset of this process depends on individual and genetic characteristics.